This page will deal with shapes that would act as fair dice in their dimension. A

The only dice in 0 and 1 dimensions are the monad (single point) and dyad (line segment) respectively. The monad has no contact zones, so it is a die by default. The dyad has two endpoints as it's contact zones, however it can't be rolled in 1-space.

In 2-space, all of the regular polygons will work as dice, as well as variations of the even numbered polygons - for instance a variation of the square die is a rhombus die. Their contact zones are edges.

We can't forget the circle (disk), it acts as a one sided roley die - it's contact zones are points.

The 5 Platonic solids: tet, cube, oct, doe, and ike are all dice, as well as their variations. These five are normally encountered as dice.

**Tet** can be stretched or squashed into a disphenoid and then twisted into what I like to call a "scalenoid" - these all have 4 triangular sides (equalateral for tet, isosceles for disphenoids, and scalene for scalenoids).

The **cube** can be stretched or squashed corner to corner to get crystal shaped dice and then it can also be twisted - these all have 6 sides (square shaped for cube, rhombus shaped for crystals, and tetragons for twisted crystals).

**Oct** can be stretched or squashed on all three axises to get square tegums (fusils, or dipyramids) and dyad tritegums - these all have 8 triangular sides (equalateral for oct, isosceles for square tegums, and scalene for dyad tritegums).

**Doe** can be altered to take on pyrital symmetry or chiral tet symmetry - these have 12 pentagonal sides (regular for doe, isosceles pentagon for pyrital, and "scalene pentagon" for chiral).

**Ike** on the otherhand can't be altered without taking away it's die status, it has 20 equalateral triagles for it's sides.

Tegums are the duals of prisms, they are also called dipyramids or fusils. The term tegum was coined by Wendy Krieger, fusil was coined by Norman Johnson. Tegums can be constructed by taking a polygon and putting a dyad through it's center, then cover it with triangles (edge of polygon to an endpoint of the dyad). Tegums can be stretched or squashed, tegums of 2-D dice are also dice. Oct and its variations take care of the square and rhombus tegums. Other tegum examples are below:

**Trit** - the trigonal tegum has 6 isosceles triangles ("isots" for short) for sides. The version with equalateral triangles ("equits" for short) is the Johnson solid "trigonal dipyrmid" (short name = tridpy).

**Pit** - the pentagonal tegum has 10 isots for sides. The version with equits is the Johnson solid "pentagonal dipyramid (or pedpy).

**Hat** - the hexagonal tegum has 12 isots for sides. Not only can it be stretched or squashed, it can also be altered so that it is a triambus tegum (a triambus is a hexagon with trigonal symmetry and congruent edges).

*n*-gonal tegums has 2*n* isots for sides. "Evengonal" tegums can be altered as well as stretched, while "oddgonal" tegums can only be stretched (or squashed) to get dice variations.

Also called antifusils - are the duals of the antiprisms, they can be stretched or squashed as well as twisted to get variations. There is one for every polygon, where the trigonal case has been dealt with under the cube and it's variations. They have 2*n* sides which have a kite shape (or a tetragon for the twisted ones). The pentagonal antitegum is used to make the 10 sided dice found in game stores.

**Du Co** is the rhombic dodecahedron, it has 12 rhombuses and its tetrahedral symmetric variations have kite shaped faces. Makes an attractive die.

**Du Id** is the rhombic triacontahedron, it has 30 rhombuses and no variations. It is used as the 30 sided dice found in game stores.

**Du Tut** is the triakis tetrahedron, it has 12 isots. It has one degree of variations.

**Du Tic** is the triakis octahedron, it has 24 isots and one degree of variations.

**Du Toe** is the tetrakis hexahedron, it has 24 isots and two degrees of variations, some variations have scalenes instead of isots.

**Du Tid** is the triakis icosahedron, it has 60 isots and one degree of variations.

**Du Ti** is the pentakis dodecahedron, it has 60 isots and one degree of variations.

**Du Sirco** is also called the kited-24, it has 24 kites and two degrees of variations, some variations have pyrital symmetry with tetragon faces. Du sirco makes a very attractive 24-sided die.

**Du Srid** is also called the kited-60, it has 60 kites and one degree of variations, it would make a very attractive 60-sided die.

**Du Girco** has 48 scalenes and two degrees of variations.

**Du Grid** has 120 scalenes and two degrees of variations.

**Du Snic** has 24 isosceles pentagons and two degrees of variations which will turn the pentagons scalene or irregular, this would make a strange looking die, for it looks a bit cock-eyed when rolled, no face is pointing up, instead it is pointing up and a bit to the side.

**Du Snid** has 60 isosceles pentagons and two degrees of variations which will turn the pentagons scalene or irregular, it is cock-eyed also.

There are only two types of roley dice in 3-space:

The **spindle** is the dual of the cylinder, it looks like two cones fused together into a roller shape, it has one degree of variation (can be stretched or squashed). The contact regions are dyads, it has two sides which look like the curved side of a cone. When rolling it will trace out a circle. A good use for this die would be to randomly choose one of two objects and what color it takes on (using the color wheel). It can also be considered to be the tegum of a circle.

The **sphere** (or ball) has one side, its entire surface. It's contact regions are points. It can roll all over the surface of a table. A good use for a sphere die would be to randomly choose a location on the surface of the Earth.

**Pen** (or pentachoron) has 5 tetrahedral sides. It can also be squashed or stretched planarly to get a chiral figure with a subsymmetry of the pentagon duoprism - to picture this, imagine it being squashed towards it's 2-D projection which looks like a complete pentagon - the stages along the way are the variations.

**Tes** (or tesseract) has 8 cubes for its sides. It can be stretched or squashed from corner to corner to get polychora with stretched cubes (crystals) for sides, you could also then squash or stretch it sideways in such a way as to generate disphenoid verfs at the top and bottom vertices. There are also rhombus duoprism variations. It can also be distorted like the duoprisms, see triddip below.

**Hex** (or 16-cell) has 16 tets for its sides. It can be stretched or squashed via any of it's four axises, resulting in oct tegums, square duotegums, square tegum tegums, and dyad tetrategums - where their sides are trigon pyramids, disphenoids, scalenoids, and irregular tets respectively.

**Ico** (or 24-cell) has 24 octs for its sides. I suspect there are several ways to variate this in a swirlprismattic sort of way.

**Hi** (or 120-cell) has 120 does for its sides, this would make an awesome dice. There are also swirlprismattic variations which have a pyritoswirlprism symmetry, as well as chirotetra-swirlprism symmetry.

**Ex** (or 600-cell) has 600 tets for its sides. I'm not aware of any variations.

**Deca** (or decachoron) has 10 tuts and no apparent dice variations (but I could be wrong).

**Cont** (also called octagonny or 48-cell) has 48 tics. This one looks like it can be deformed swirlprismattically in two different ways, both with two degrees of variation - but I'll need to check it closer to make sure. If it works, the sides will be variant distorted tics.

**Triddip** is the trigonal duoprism with 6 trips for its cells, it also has two degrees of variation - To picture the variations, mark the centers of each trip of triddip, the result would be the vertices of two orthogonal triangles, now take these two triangles and twirl them closer to each other (one of the degrees), then you can rotate one of the triangles within it's plane (second degree). The actual facets probably look like angle-skewed trips.

**Pedip** is the pentagonal duoprism with 10 pips (pentagon prism) for its sides. It can be deformed like triddip.

**Hiddip** is the hexagon duoprism with 12 hips. It can be deformed like triddip, there's also triambus duoprism dice.

Even duoprisms act like hiddip, while odd ones act like pedip. These duoprisms are actually the square of their base polygon and are therefore powertopes.

**Du Rap** has 10 trigon tegums for sides.

**Du Rit** has 32 somewhat flattened trigon tegum sides.

**Du Rico** has 96 somewhat stretched trigon tegum sides.

**Du Rahi** has 1200 flattened trigon tegum sides.

**Du Rox** has 720 pentagon tegum sides.

**Du Tip** has 20 trigon pyramid sides.

**Du Tat** has 64 trigon pyramid sides.

**Du Thex** has 48 square pyramid sides.

**Du Tico** has 192 trigon pyramid sides.

**Du Thi** has 2400 flat trigon sides.

**Du Tex** has 1440 pentagon pyramid sides.

**Du Srip** has 30 isot tegum sides (the isot tegum is the dual of a wedge).

**Du Srit** has 96 isot tegum sides.

**Du Srico** has 288 isot tegum sides.

**Du Srahi** has 3600 isot tegum sides.

**Du Srix** has 3600 isot tegum sides.

**Du Deca** has 30 disphenoid sides.

**Du Tah** has 96 disphenoid sides.

**Du Cont** has 288 disphenoid sides.

**Du Xhi** has 3600 disphenoid sides.

**Du Grip** has 60 scalenoid sides.

**Du Grit** has 192 scalenoid sides.

**Du Grico** has 576 scalenoid sides.

**Du Grahi** has 7200 scalenoid sides.

**Du Grix** has 7200 scalenoid sides.

**Du Gippid** has 120 irregular tet sides.

**Du Gidpith** has 384 irregular tet sides.

**Du Gippic** has 1152 irregular tet sides.

**Du Gidpixhi** has 14400 irregular tet sides.

**Du Prip** has 60 kite pyramid sides.

**Du Prit** has 192 kite pyramid sides.

**Du Proh** has 192 kite pyramid sides.

**Du Prico** has 576 kite pyramid sides.

**Du Prahi** has 7200 kite pyramid sides.

**Du Prix** has 7200 kite pyramid sides.

**Du Spid** has 30 flat trigon antitegum (flat crystal shaped) sides.

**Du Sidpith** has 64 trigon gem shaped sides (looks like trigon antitegum, but with one half stetched, it is the dual of the trigon antipodium).

**Du Spic** has 144 square antitegum sides. This one is sure to be a fascinating die.

**Du Sidpixhi** has 2400 trigon gem shaped sides.

**Du Sadi** has 96 sides. The shape of the side has trigon symmetry - start with a trigon antipodium, blend a trigon pyramid onto its base, then blend a small trigon pyramid onto its top face - this causing the adjacent isots to turn into kites. Du sadi has pyrital ico symmetry.

**Du Gap** has 100 sides. It's sides look like a sort of dodecahedron-wedge fusion, it has 4 pentagons on the back end, 4 kites (2 on the top, 2 on bottom), and 2 trapezoids which form the wedge part.

**Du Snip** (dual of snub pentachoron) has 60 sides. The sides have chiral symmetry, with 2 scalene pentagons, 2 kites, and 4 triangles for it's sides.

**Du Snit** (dual of snub tesseract) has 192 sides. Sides similar to du snip's.

**Du Sni** (dual of snub ico) has 576 sides. Sides similar to du snip's.

**Du Snahi** (dual of snub 120-cell) has 7200 sides. Sides similar to du snip's.

**Bidex** has 48 tridiminished icosahedra for its sides, it has a directed tetraswirlprism symmetry.

**Du Bidex** has 72 chiral sides which have 2 trapezoids and 4 isots.

**Du Tutcup** has 24 rhombus skew pyramids. Tutcup is the result of taking two parallel tuts in opposite orientations and filling in the space between them with trigon cupolas, du tutcup is it's dual.

**Du Spidrox** has 600 sides, it is the dual of spidrox which is resulted by cutting off 120 vertices off of rox in a swirlprismattic way. It's sides look like a twisted kite antitegum which has 6 tetragons and 2 isots.

**Du Prissi** has 288 sides, it is the dual of prissi where prissi has 24 ikes, 96 trips, 24 tuts, and 96 tricus (trigon cupolas) for cells. Du prissi's sides look like a pentagon pyramid with the pentagon sliced off in a folded sort of way, resulting in a kite and four triangles that meet at the apex and two tetragons on the bottom.

The **decastellated spid or Tudu Rap** - take spid and put pyramids on all ten of its tets, so that it's trips (triangle prisms) expand to have pyramid caps on both triangles - the result is a 20 sided die. This is the intersection of 2 du raps.

The **48 stellated spic or Tudu Rico** - take spic (which has 48 octs and 192 trips) and put pyramids on all of its octs, so that its trips have pyramids on both ends - this leads to a 192 sided die. This is the intersection of 2 du ricoes.

**Tudu Tip** - the intersection of 2 du tips has 60 sides.

**Tudu Tico** - the intersection of 2 du ticoes has 576 sides.

**Tudu Srip** - the intersection of 2 du srips has 60 sides.

**Altudu Srip** - the intersection of 2 altered du srips has 60 sides - altered so that the srip's coes are further out than the octs.

**Tudu Srico** - the intersection of 2 du sricoes has 576 sides.

**Altudu Srico** - altered so that the srico's sircoes are further out than the coes.

**Tudu Deca** - intersection of two stretched decas, has 60 sides.

**Tudu Cont** - intersection of two stretched conts, has 576 sides.

**Tudu Grip** - intersection of two grips, has 120 sides.

**Tudu Grico** - intersection of two gricoes, has 1152 sides.

**Altudu Grip** - altered so that the grip's toes are further out than the tuts.

**Altudu Grico** - altered so that the grico's gircoes are further out than the tics.

**Tudu Gippid** - intersection of two stretched gippids, has 240 sides which are irregular tets.

**Tudu Gippic** - intersection of two stretched gippics, has 2304 sides which are irregular tets.

**Tudu Prip** - intersection of two prips, has 120 sides.

**Tudu Prico** - intersection of two pricoes, has 1152 sides.

**Altudu Prip Version 1** - altered so that prip's coes are further out than the tuts.

**Altudu Prip Version 2** - altered so that prip's hips are further out than the trips.

**Altudu Prip Version 3** - altered so that prip's coes and hips are further out than the tuts and trips respectively.

**Altudu Prico Version 1** - altered so that prico's toes are further out than the sircoes.

**Altudu Prico Version 2** - altered so that prico's hips are further out than the trips.

**Altudu Prico Version 3** - altered so that prico's toes and hips are further out than the sircoes and trips respectively.

**Tudu Spid** intersection of two stretched spids, has 60 sides.

**Tudu Spic** intersection of two stretched spics, has 288 sides.

**Glome** is the 4-D sphere, it has one side - its surface. Its contact regions are single points, it can roll all over a 3-D surface.

**Spherindle** is the sphere tegum, it has two sides which look like the curved side of a sphone (sphere pyramid), it can roll like a ball, but will only trace out small spheres instead of planes. It is the dual of the spherinder. Contact regions are dyads.

**Duospindle** is the circle-circle tegum (can be a powertope if both circles are the same) - it has one side, its surface - which curves like circles on two axises. Contact regions are dyads, it can roll in two orthogonal directions, but would try to trace out circles (unless it changed it's rolling direction).

**Duocylinder** is the square of a circle (or a circle duoprism) - it also has skewed variations. It has two sides which curve like a cylinder, contact regions are circles. It can roll like a cylinder. It and the duospindle are duals.

**Polygon Spindles** are the polygon-circle tegums, where "polygon" can be any polygon that qualifies for a die. These have the same number of sides as the polygon itself, the sides are shaped like the curved surface of a dyadic cone (cone with a dyad as its apex). Contact regions are triangles. They roll like cones and therefore trace out circles (the triangle contact region will trace out a spindle).

**Roley Du Oc** is the du oc of circle, yes you can take powertopes of roley objects. It has two sides which roll like the duospindle, contact regions are dyads. The sides are like the following, start with a square based wedge (wedge part is sq2 times longer than squares edge length, height of wedge is sq2*pi times smaller), now curve both axises of the square around into a circle, while making sure that the wedge part is curved into a circle with cone like surroundings.

**Tetratwister** has 4 cylindrically curved sides that swirl around each other, its contact regions are bowed out triangles.

**Cube Twister** has 6 cylindrically curved sides which resemble a 4 sided twisted rod that was curved into a ring, contact regions are bowed out squares.

**Octatwister** has 8 cylindrically curved trigon twister sides, contact region is a bowed triangle.

**Dodecatwister** has 12 cylindrically curved pentagonal twister sides, contact region is a bowed pentagon.

**Icosatwister** has 20 cylindrically curved trigon twister sides, contact region is a bowed triangle.

** n-gonal Dysters** has

**Du Co Twister** has 12 roley sides, contact region is a bowed rhombus.

**Du Id Twister** has 30 roley sides, contact region is a bowed rhombus.

**Du Tut Twister** has 12 roley sides, contact region is a bowed isot.

**Du Tic Twister** has 24 roley sides, contact region is a bowed isot.

**Du Toe Twister** has 24 roley sides, contact region is a bowed isot.

**Du Tid Twister** has 60 roley sides, contact region is a bowed isot.

**Du Ti Twister** has 60 roley sides, contact region is a bowed isot.

**Du Sirco Twister** has 24 roley sides, contact region is a bowed kite.

**Du Srid Twister** has 60 roley sides, contact region is a bowed kite.

**Du Girco Twister** has 48 roley sides, contact region is a bowed scalene.

**Du Grid Twister** has 120 roley sides, contact region is a bowed scalene.

**Du Snic Twister** has 24 roley sides, contact region is a bowed isosceles pentagon.

**Du Snid Twister** has 60 roley sides, contact region is a bowed isosceles pentagon.

Back to polychoron page